Operational Resources > Online Course on Public-Private Dialogue
Online Course on Public-Private Dialogue for Good Governance
The World Bank Group - Governance Global Practice's Open Private Sector program has developed training material for Public Private Dialogue (PPD) practitioners which includes four modules, which constitute a "PPD Primer" for those who want to learn about PPD or improve their knowledge on the topic: (1) Good Practice in Setting up, Managing and Exiting a PPD; (2) PPD Communication and Outreach; (3) PPD for Competitiveness; and, (4) Basics of Monitoring and Evaluation in PPD.
The modules provide a set of videos which can be used by PPD experts to build capacity among PPD stakeholders on secretariat effectiveness and PPD management, advocacy and communications, monitoring and evaluation and sector specific initiatives. The associated training material can be found on the Manual for Trainers on Public-Private Dialogue for Good Governance.
There are 26 videos for the 4 modules. You can go direclty to the PPD Online Courses on YouTube or select from the linear menu of videos below.
MODULE 1. GOOD PRACTICE IN SETTING UP, MAANAGING AND EXITING A PDP
1.1. Introduction: PPD in the Context of Fragility
This section is an introduction to fragility and its negative economic impact as a result of natural and man-made disasters in both developing and developed countries. Examples include natural disasters such as the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the 2011 Tsunami in Japan, the 2012 Hurricane Sandy in the US, and the 2013 typhoon in the Philippines. Man-made disasters, including the ongoing Civil War in Syria, the Arab Spring in 2011, and the Greek crisis have created fragilities and instabilities, causing a major economic cost for these countries. The section sets the scene for PPD's role in politically and economically fragile conditions.
1.2. What is a PPD?
This section defines and explains what Public-Private Dialogue is - "PPDs are structured mechanisms, anchored at the highest practical level, coordinated by a light secretariat, and aimed at facilitating the discovery process by involving a balanced range of public and private sector actors in identifying, filtering, accelerating, implementing, and measuring actions and reforms that tend to improve issues of matter to the stakeholders". We live in an era of fragility and more and more fragility needs to be mitigated by dialogue, to be able to quickly react and find solutions. The fragility examples of Section 1.1 explain why the topic of public private dialogue, promoting economic development and good governance through public-private dialogue is important.
1.3. When to Use a PPD and Typology
This section presents the different ways that PPD can be used, as a 1) Discovery mechanism, 2) Detection mechanism, 3) Resolution platform, and as a 4) Governance mechanism.
PPD comes in many forms: It can be structured or ad hoc, formal or informal, wide-ranging or focused on specific issues. The PPD typology framework is also explained along seven categories, 1) national vs. local, 2) sector-specific vs. economy-wide, or topic-wide, 3) permanent institution vs. temporary initiative, 4) public-driven vs. private driven, 5) third-party brokerage vs. locally driven, 6) many goals vs. a specific goal, and lastly, 7) many actors vs. few actors.
1.4. Benefits of PPDs
This section looks at the main reasons why stakeholders decide to do a PPD. For the governments, PDD can help them prioritize, whereas for entrepreneurs it can increase competitiveness. PPDs can generate regulatory payoffs, especially the policy reforms that it can precipitate. Another reason why people may want to engage through PPD is that some businesses come to invest in communities and want to manage potential risks while investing in these communities. Moreover, PPD can help expand the space for viable reforms.
1.5. Benefits of PPD - Better Governance
This section touches upon some of the benefits of PPD in the good governance agenda. Public-Private Dialogue is a lot about inclusiveness, and this inclusive process can help fight collusions between the public and the private sectors actors. PPD can leverage sector improvements for governance gains - in fact there is a very strong correlation between the sector fundamentals and the governance fundamentals. PPD can unlock systems and increase the governance space - an unlocked system can create an environment in which the best player can win based on open competition. It will generate open opportunities for all others.
1.6. What is the Impact of PPD
This section looks at what the impact of PPD is in more concrete terms. The results of some evaluations from PPD programs globally are presented. The section demonstrates the strong impact at the sector level. Research was done to find out whether there was a correlation between sector growth and dialogue between the public and private sector actors. 18 different sectors were researched and further research was carried out in two sectors in a relatively homogenous market of the Mediterranean region. A strong correlation was found between sector growth and the presence of PPDs. The study is available and can be downloaded in the Case Studies section of the website.
1.7. How to Make it Work
This section introduces the basic prerequisites and the implementation framework necessary to succesfully implement PPDs. The PPD Diamond considers 4 dimensions when implementing a PPD, namely the Public Authorities, Business Community, Champions and Instruments. Mapping the relative strength and weakness of these four dimensions can help to identify the potential for success in a competitiveness partnership, and the vulnerable points that need to be addressed. On the other hand, the implementation framework of a PPD consists of 12 processes that need to be tackled to create the right conditions for a successful PPD.
1.8. 10 Practical Tips - #1-Lot of Work; #2-Inclusion; #3-Measurable Reforms
This section introduces the first 3 of the 10 practical tips for successful PPD implementation:
- Tip #1 - A lot of work. Implementing a PPD involves huge coordination and mediation business. A lot of time and work needs to be invested in consultations and reaching out to people.
- Tip #2 - Plan a Phased and Inclusive Approach. Start by first assessing the field. Apply a diagnostic approach to PPD. The 12 issues can be measured each to better understand the wider environment in which the PPD takes place, and assess its success and challenges. After a large series of consultations, constituents need to be informed at various stages. Open communication about the process is essential for creating trust and inclusion.
- Tip #3 - Strong focus on targeted, measurable reforms. One needs to be specific in order to measure the outputs of reform. There are several outputs a PPD can yield, including 1) soft benefits such as trust, cohesion and social capital, and 2) hard, quantifiable outputs such as policy reforms, position papers and conferences.
1.9. 10 Practical Tips - Tip#4: Simple Explicit Organization
This section introduces Tip #4 for better PPD implementation and getting results, which is that of creating a simple, explicit organization. A setting that seems to be most appropriate to optimize these key success factors and prevalent in the most productive PPD programs is a structure characterized by a dedicated secretariat and working groups. They meet often to devise recommendations for periodical plenary sessions/forums. A Secretariat should be set up as a neutral entity or 'honest broker' focused on keeping every actor within the PPD informed, prepared and productive. The most important criteria of an organization in which a secretariat is located are that it should be effective, able to build capacity, reach a wide range of businesses, acceptable to a range of stakeholders, and it should not duplicate existing institutions. This section will also present different types of secretariats, drawing examples from Belarus, Malaysia, Benin, Tajikistan and Jordan.
1.10. 10 Practical Tips - Tip#5: Discipline to Collect and Vet Reforms Proposals
This section will introduce Practical Tip #5 , which calls for a templated, open and disciplined way to collect and vet reform proposals. Examples and templates are presented on how to harvest proposals in a disciplined matter. The formats used are rational, evidence-based, participatory, and transparent. It should be clearly indicated and openly communicated who submits what issues/proposals. Tools on how to track the systems for accountability are also presented, including a filtering process to ensure transparency and fairness, using concrete examples.
1.11. 10 Practical Tips - Tip#6: A Strong Convincing Power; Tip#7: Good planning; Tip#8: Monitoring and Evaluation
This section introduces Tip #6, #7 and #8 for better PPD implementation and getting results:
- Tip #6 - Strong convincing power. Advertising techniques (social marketing) are commonly used in PPDs to convince people. People need to understand the reform. It needs to be explained in simple terms. Slogans, brands, logos can be useful. Communication channels such as newspapers, magazines, social media, the radio, even TV shows are often used. Websites are useful and can also help a PPD to fulfill a watchdog function. Advocacy techniques used in Bangladesh and Vietnam are also presented.
- Tip #7 - Good Planning. The entire span of 6 months of a PPD needs to be planned in a very careful way for each activity. Planning helps stakeholders understand what it takes from them in terms of time and other resources. Moreover, good budgeting is also crucial. PPDs are perhaps not so expensive in the grand scheme of things but it depends: sometimes huge and expensive institutions are set up, whereas sometimes just a few people are running the PPD. Whatever the range, one needs to understand the costs of the dialogue.
- Tip #8 - Monitoring and Evaluation. Measuring the results so that one can adapt the process. A number of tools are presented. Evaluation wheels can be used to benchmark and monitor each of the 12 points mentioned in previous sections. The website www.publicprivatedialogue.org provides a variety of tools that one can use to devise one's own evaluation wheel and measure the reform process.
1.12. 10 Practical Tips - Tip#9: Understanding the Risks
This section introduces Tip #9 for better PPD implementation and results, namely understanding the risks that come with it. PPD is not a panacea - when done badly, it can waste time and resources and carry important risks. Six principal risks have been identified, together with the strategies to mitigate them: Political economy and institutional misalignment; Refining vested interest; Over and under representation; Reliance on a single individual or sponsor; Sustainability issues; Political risks. Along with the explanation of each of these risks, strategies which can be used to mitigate them are presented.
1.13. 10 Practical Tips - Tip#10: As You Enter, Think About Exit
This section presents the last practical tip for better PPD implementation and results, Tip #10 - "as you enter think about exit". As you enter a PPD, think about what is the long term strategy for sustaining that dialogue process - or not. Who is going to host it, how will it be structured, who will implement what? How to go from a palliative solution to one rooted in the institutional and business framework and also be financially sustainable? It is important to consider why Public-Private dialogue is there in the first place - is it an initiative that will end or will it be a permanent institution? This section also looks at the PPD life-cycle. The life of a partnership can be considered as going through an initial, mature and exit phase (sometime replaced by an Exlpoitation phase).
1.14. Sharing Knowledge and Conclusion
This section explains how to share experiences as well as get good practice material and tools. Apart from these online videos and presentations, there are two other main sources which also constitute the PPD Community of Practice: The PPD Website at www.publicprivatedialogue.org is a resource for stakeholders interested in using PPD for private sector development. The website includes the PPD Handbook, M&E frameworks for PPDs, more than 50 PPD case studies, the PPD Charter of Good Practice, lessons learned, papers, links to operational PPDs and papers and materials from international workshops on PPD held each year.
MODULE 2. COMMUNICATION AND OUTREACH
2.1. Why Communicate?
This section introduces the basic concepts of why we communicate. It looks at the main concepts of advertising that have been picked up by the public and private sectors and how these basic concepts have been used differently to communicate specific messages through various campaigns. If one is involved in a PPD today, the question is: how does one transfer the information, how does one communicate one's actions and proposals? Policy reforms, sector improvement and competiveness actions have a need for a 2-way communication with the people so that they understand the benefits of reform - this also makes attracting people's attention essential. The way to communicate risks of failure and benefits of success are also presented.
2.2. Advocacy Campaign, Step by Step - Step 1: Diagnose
This section introduces the first step of the "Five Ds" Strategic Communications Framework: Diagnose, Design, Develop, Deploy and Debrief. It provides a structure for designing and implementing a strategic communications component in reform projects. This section also introduces the first Diagnose step (also called stakeholder targeting) in which stakeholder mapping and analysis are carried out. This step is a critical part of the advocacy campaign - analyzing all the groups involved with, or affected by, the reform. A stakeholder map where the degree of support and level of interest are assessed is also shown and an exercise is also build around such stakeholder mapping for outreach purposes.
2.3. Advocacy Campaign, Step by Step - Step 2: Design
This section introduces the second step of the "Five Ds" Strategic Communications Framework: the Design stage, where basically one wants to develop a message. There are various levels to think of when developing such message: Attributes (the elements of the reform); Issue benefits; Personal consequences (what will the consequences of the issue be for an individual); Values - those that are universal and core to people’s behavior. The section also looks at and conducts an exercise about the Message Box, which helps to "keep tabs" on potential challenges with opponents and do a periodic "pulse check" on what messages are being sent about the reform - it also gives help on how toidentify what supporters and opponents are saying about each other. Other techniques on how to develop a single message, factors to consider and how to create equity to offset costs are introduced.
2.4. Advocacy Campaign, Step by Step - Step 3-Develop; Step 4-Deploy; Step 5-Debrief
This section introduces steps #3, #4, and #5 of the "Five Ds" Strategic Communications Framework: namely Develop, Deploy and Debrief.
- Step #3: Develop. At this stage, techniques on how to bring the message to the people after it has been designed are introduced. There are a variety of channels of communication and in order to find the best channel, one needs to do a communication assessment. Various examples of assessments of media outlets conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bangladesh and Cambodia are presented, including most watched TV shows and most-read newspapers. Other communication techniques, such as the comic strips or other entertaining applications can be used to deliver a message and reach out to people.
- Step #4: Deploy. This is the stage of implementation of the action plan. Messengers are crucial at this stage as the more people are speaking on one's behalf, the more important it is for the message to be constant and consistent. An example in Kuwait of how to look for the right messengers is displayed as well as a public and symbolic commitment made in Bosnia and Herzegovina. As there are many ways to deliver the message, certain aspects ensuring a proper delivery need to be considered, such as which informal channels can be used, choosing paid versus free mediums, having a disciplined communication strategy, repetition, multi-media, negative publicity, rapid responsiveness, logistics etc. An exercise about a delivery timeline of 100 days is also conducted.
- Tip #5: Debrief. The last stage of debriefing assesses implementation, evaluates impact and incorporates lessons learned in the next advocacy activity.
MODULE 3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE DIALOGUE FOR COMPETITIVENESS
This section is an introduction to the lessons learned from other experiences of PPD for competitiveness and the types of cooperation that can happen in a PPD for competitiveness. It discusses how PPD can be used to contribute to the field of competitive industries and how it can be used in the context of competitiveness programs. It makes the case that in addition to improving regulations in general, PPD can also be used to drive investment and employment at the sector level. A study of 18 sectors was conducted and how they developed. What were the factors that made the sector take off or sustain growth? It was observed that strong public-private sector collaborative actions played an important role behind the scenes. Several examples of successful sector-dialogues are mentioned, including a case from the electronic sector in Malaysia, the tourism and the citrus industries in the Mediterranean region, a similar study in the region of Catalonia in Spain where nine different clusters are investigated, a case of rose farming in Ethiopia, an example of sector development that happened with the help of PPD in India (Business Process Outsourcing) and the case of asparagus farming in Peru.
3.2. Pillars of Competitiveness and Collaborative Matrix
This section looks at the pillars of competitiveness and the "collaborative matrix" is presented. There are five major foundational factors of competitiveness: Regulatory and tax environment, Infrastructure, Access to finance, Skilled and trained labor, Access to new technologies and R&D. In addition to the five pillars of competitiveness, the dialogue process can define different actions which are either fully implemented by the public sector, that involve both the public and private sector, or that need to be implemented by the private sector. The matrix combines the five pillars of competitiveness with the three categories of action, and thus depicts the real basis of a sector-specific PPD. This can also be called an industry level, collaborative action matrix.
3.3. Structures and Participation, Conclusion
This section looks at the structure and participation of a competitiveness partnership initiative. In contrast to national level structures, sector level structures tend to be more dynamic. Examples from a competitiveness partnership initiative in Kenya and from a salmon export facility in Chile reveal the complex structure of sector level initiatives, especially when it comes to anchorage. With respect to structures, one also needs to understand who participates and why they participate, identify the so-called anchor firms that are exporting goods, and identify the network of SMEs that supply the intermediators. All of these creates an ecosystem of firms. The section also showcases an example from Malaysia PEMUDAH, which is an organization in Malaysia that takes care of competitiveness development and the betterment of the business environment. Another example has been the adaptation of the Industry-level Collaborative Action Matrix for the Jordan Medical Tourism Industry. Other sample matrices are also presented.
MODULE 4. BASICS OF M&E FOR PUBLIC PRIVATE DIALOGUE
4.1. Introduction and Selection of Indicators
This session introduces the key frameworks, terminology and indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation. It starts with the introduction of the 'Logical Framework' and its Log Frame, which helps to clarify the objectives of any project, program, or policy and improve the quality of M&E design. Key M&E terminology such as Inputs, Activities, Outputs, Outcomes and Impacts are explained. Two groups of indicators are defined: SMART and SPICED. These are intended as checklists for assessing the construction of indicators. Indicators used for gathering performance information should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time bound) while indicators used when collecting subjective information should be SPICED (Subjective, Participatory, Interpretable, Cross-checked, E-Empowering. Disaggregated).
4.2. Evaluation Wheel
This section introduces the PPD Evaluation Wheel, used to visually evaluate different aspects of a PPD which contribute to its organizational effectiveness. The PPD Wheel addresses the 12 elements of the PPD Charter of Good Practice considered as essential contributors to an effective PPD process. For each of the 12 elements represented on the wheel, objectively verifiable indicators indexed on a scale from 1 to 10 have been identified. The average index between different indicators for a single process aspect gives the final score to be plotted on the wheel. Examples of the Evaluation Wheel usage from the Tanzania Mining PPD, Cambodia Government-Private Sector Forum (G-PSF), and the Benin Presidential Investment Council are presented, as well as an exercise for practice.
4.3. The PPD Reform Process Table
This section introduces the PPD Reform Process Table, which measures the impact on the reform process. It divides the reform Process into five areas, 1) Issue Identification and Prioritization, 2) Solution Design, 3) Advocacy and Handover to Public Sector, 4) Legislative / Executive Process, 5) Implementation, M&E and Follow-up. The section also presents how the PPD Reform Process Tables applied in Mekong PPDs and the Liberia Better Business Forum, as well as an exercise for practice.
4.4. PPD Scorecard, PPD Logical Framework and Results of Evaluation
This section introduces the PDD Score Card, which focuses on the tracking of a PPD's outputs for a specific period of time (since its inception) as well as the PPD Logical Framework. The PPD scorecard looks at
- # of WG meetings held
- # of plenary meetings held
- # of reforms proposed in all WGs
- # of reforms recommended for enactment by Government
- # of reforms enacted
- # of reforms implemented
Examples of the PPD Vietnam Performance scorecard and the Nepal Business Forum (NBF) advocacy effectiveness scorecard are presented. Finally, the PPD Logical Framework incorporates all of the earlier mentioned tools in this session into a single set of indicators to monitor the performance of the PPD over time. It assesses two factors: (1) how well the PPD is working; and (2) what the PPD is doing or delivering.
4.5. PPD Scorecard, PPD Logical Framework and Results of Evaluation
This section looks at what the cost and the benefit of doing a reform are. In earlier sections it was mentioned how important it is for the people to understand the benefits of the reform. Often people do not calculate what the impact of a reform is. However, a financial overview may prove to be very convincing. To get a basic idea of how one could do a simple cost- benefit analysis of a reform. a Cost-Benefit Analysis exercise is presented using the "Back of the Envelope" Technique