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Synthesis knowledge: Selected research papers

This page presents a carefully chosen selection of recent research papers which synthesise experiences and lessons learned from public-private dialogue across different countries and settings.


State of Play - Public-Private Dialogue

Benjamin Herzberg & Lili Sisombat; The World Bank Group, Public-Private Dialogue Working Paper Series, 2016

This Introductory Practical Note is part of a series of five how-to-guides that captures the evolution of PPD and the challenges faced by practitioners since the first PPD handbook was published in 2006. It provides a broad overview of what PPD is, its historical roots and the contexts in which it is used, as well as an introduction to the subject area of each Practical Note in the series. An updated "Charter of Good Practice in Using Public-Private Dialogue" that reflects practice modifications and improvements is also included in this note. This series takes the Charter's principles as its base and expands on them with practical advice and recommendations.


Sustainability of Public-Private Dialogue Initiatives: Practical Note to Ensure the Sustainability of Dialogue Partnerships

Benjamin Herzberg & Lili Sisombat; The World Bank Group, Public-Private Dialogue Working Paper Series, 2016

This Practical Note is part of a series of five how-to-guides that captures the evolution of PPD and the challenges faced by practitioners since the first PPD handbook was published in 2006. It focuses on the life span of a PPD and the challenge of sustainability. PPDs are often supported by a development sponsor, such as the government, the private sector or a development partner, which initially helps to establish or run activities. This note guides practitioners in the development of a PPD transition strategy - the process through which sponsors move away from direct support to a PPD and toward a way that allows the partnership to function sustainably. This Practical Note helps practitioners devise ways in which PPDs can achieve long-term operational, financial and mandate sustainability.


Role of the Coordination Unit in a Public-Private Dialogue: Practical Note on Design, Implementation, and Management

Benjamin Herzberg & Lili Sisombat; The World Bank Group, Public-Private Dialogue Working Paper Series, 2016

This Practical Note is part of a series of five how-to-guides that captures the evolution of PPD and the challenges faced by practitioners since the first PPD handbook was published in 2006. This note on implementation processes examines the practical elements that go into the design, implementation and management of PPDs, including the efficient management of a Coordination Unit and its facilitation mechanisms, structural failures, the importance of organizing reform teams that work on improving the reform space, and how a unit should be designed upfront with local capacity and sustainability in mind. A Coordination Unit organizes meetings, coordinates research efforts, set agendas, rallies members, manages communication and outreach strategies, supports working groups in the implementation of reforms, monitors progress and acts as the face of the PPD.


Gender-Informed Public-Private Dialogue: Practical Note on Inclusion of Women Entrepreneurs' Voices

Benjamin Herzberg & Lili Sisombat; The World Bank Group, Public-Private Dialogue Working Paper Series, 2016

This practical note is part of a series of five how-to-guides that captures the evolution of PPD and the challenges faced by practitioners since the first PPD handbook was published in 2006. It focuses on the place of women in PPDs and how the platforms can or cannot address issues, such as differences in laws and regulations, economic rights, and health care provision. A gender lens can be applied to a PPD at both the policy level - which brings a gender perspective to laws, regulations and other reforms, and at a process level - which is all about active gender engagement in PPD structures and applying a gender lens as part of a PPD's evaluation. Countries that do not fully capitalize on one-half of their human resources run the risk of undermining their competitive potential, and so contributing to the capture of this "missed potential" should be the goal of gender-informed PPD.


Public-Private Dialogue for City Competitiveness : Competitive Cities for Jobs and Growth

Dmitry Sivaev, Benjamin Herzberg, & Sumit Manchanda; Competitive Cities for Jobs and Growth, Companion Paper 7; World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015

The objective of this paper is to review and analyze existing literature on Public Private Dialogue (PPD) and the way it can be applied to address the issues of competitiveness at the city level. The paper aims to explain how traditional PPD approaches and techniques should be adjusted for application at the city level.


Towards Good Governance of Public Private Alliance Councils Supporting Industrial Policies in Latin America

Devlin R. (2014). Towards Good Governance of Public Private Alliance Councils Supporting Industrial Policies in Latin America , Inter-American Development Bank technical Note No. IDB-TN-615

This paper approaches the issue of governance of Public-Private Alliance councils (PPAs) with an overview of their rationale and framework, and then draws from the experience of several OECD countries, most of which have long experience working with councils, to illustrate how they operate and gain insights on good governance for Latin America alliances.Systematic application of industrial policies has reemerged in Latin America after a hiatus during the era of the Washington Consensus. These industrial policies are broadly different from the past. One of the characteristics of the region's new industrial policies is the use of public-private alliance councils to help guide their development and implementation. The deployment of public-private dialogue and related problem solving is considered an essential component of modern industrial policies. However, to be effective councils must be well governed. The paper examines the intangible dimensions of governance, as well as tangibles involving the structure and procedures of councils.


Institutions for Effective Business-Government Collaboration: Micro-Mechanisms and Macro Politics in Latin America

Schneider B.R. (2013). Institutions for Effective Business-Government Collaboration: Micro-Mechanisms and Macro Politics in Latin America, IDB Working Paper series IDB-WP-418

This papers looks at what makes for effective cooperation between government and business in industrial policy. Core research questions on the institutional design of arrangements for business-government interactions focus on three main functions: i) maximizing the benefits of dialogue and information exchange; ii) motivating participation through authoritative allocation; and iii) minimizing unproductive rent seeking. Countries with more experiences of public-private collaboration (PPC) tend to have more pragmatic governments and better organized and informally networked private sectors. Effective cooperation also depends on the macro context, in particular the nature of the political system and the alternative avenues it provides for business politicking, especially through parties, networks and appointments, the media, and campaign finance. Lastly, the structure and strategies of big domestic businesses - mostly diversified, family-owned business groups - affects their preferences and interest in collaborating in industrial policy.


State-Business Relations, Investment Climate Reform and Firm Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

Saeed Qureshi, M. and te Velde, D. W. (2013). State-Business Relations, Investment Climate Reform and Firm Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. J. Int. Dev., 25: 912-935

This paper examines whether an effective state-business relationship, facilitated by an organized private sector, improves firm performance in seven sub-Saharan African countries: Benin, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, South Africa and Zambia. The findings reveal that, on average, state-business relationships enhance firm productivity by about 25-35% in sub-Saharan African firms. This effect appears to set in through an improved investment climate - including reduced corruption, better provision of public utilities and information technology development - and higher labor productivity. These gains are not confined to small and medium sized firms but have a similar positive impact on large firms. Further, both domestic and foreign-owned firms appear to benefit from joining business associations, although the impact is somewhat larger for the latter.
The Organization of Public-Private Cooperation for Productive Development Policies

Cornick J. (2013) The Organization of Public-Private Cooperation for Productive Development Policies, IDB Working Paper Series, IDB-WP-437

This paper suggests that public sector organization should be a response to three key variables: the scope of the Productive Development Policies (PDPs), the scope of the intended cooperation, and the organizational characteristics of the private sector. Productive development policies (PDPs) - what used to be called industrial policies - are increasingly recognized as an essential part of the development toolkit, and the need for public-private cooperation is increasingly viewed as a key element for the successful design and implementation of such policies. If so, how should the cooperation be organized and how should the public sector organize itself to successfully participate in it? The paper further proposes the appropriate selection of public sector participants; the alignment of policy, political, and organizational time frames; the ensured quality of the bureaucracy; the protection against private and bureaucratic capture and against unbounded financial risk; and a reasonable regulatory environment of key elements for success.
Reform Coalitions

Peiffer C. (2012). Reform Coalitions, Developmental Leadership Program (DLP), U.K.

This paper reports patterns learned from a review of literatures that can offer relevant theoretical background and case-studies of reform coalitions, so as to synthesize some preliminary answers to these and other relevant questions. Reform coalitions - coalitions that include both state and business actors working for policy and institutional reforms - are frequently cited as being important components in successful and sustained growth outcomes. But what do we know about the inner politics that drive these potentially important coalitions? When, and under what circumstances, do they arise? Who initiates them? How long do they last? Do successful reform (or 'growth') coalitions share similar characteristics with other kinds of coalition in the politics of development? And what can donors do facilitate their formation? The paper hopes that the generalizations it suggests will offer lessons for donors as and when they consider whether and how to encourage, broker or facilitate the emergence of local and locally-owned reform coalitions. Finally, this review identifies some weaknesses and gaps in the existing scholarship on reform coalitions, and suggests new avenues of inquiry for future research.


The 21st Century Force Multiplier: Public-Private Collaboration (pdf, 206kb)

James Stavridis and Evelyn N. Farkas, Center for Strategic and International Studies, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 2012

This article, by Supreme Allied Commander Europe and Commander, U.S. Europe Command Admiral James Stavridis and his Senior Advisor for Public Private Partnership Evelyn Farkas discusses and solidifies the value and contribution of robust public private dialogue, and how the intelligence and defense community have made developing such relationships more of a priority. The authors define different types of collaboration, from sharing expertise, to exchanging information to executing joint defense projects and operations, and go through a number of examples on defense, national security and disaster recovery.
Effective State Business Relations Matter for Economic Growth? Evidence from Indian States

Cali, Massimiliano and Kunal SenDo (2011). Effective State Business Relations Matter for Economic Growth: Evidence from Indian States, World Development Vol. 39, No. 9, pp. 1542-1557

This paper examines the impact of effective state-business relations on economic growth across Indian states over the period 1985-2006. Effective state-business relations are a set of highly institutionalized, responsive and public interactions between the state and the business sector. The authors propose a measure that captures the various dimensions of effective state-business relations at the sub-national level, and estimate standard growth regressions using dynamic panel data methods. The results show that effective state-business relations contribute significantly to economic growth and appear to be driven by the intensity of the interactions between the state and the private sector.


Public-Private Dialogue for Sector Competitiveness and Local Economic Development: Lessons form the Mediterranean Region (pdf, 6498kb)

A report produced by The Cluster Competitiveness Group, S.A. for the Public-Private Dialogue program of the Investment Climate Department of the World Bank Group, and funded through the Catalonia (COPCA) / IFC Technical Assistance Trust Fund; November 2011

This groundbreaking comparative study explores the influence of PPDs on local development and sector competitiveness. The report presents 20 case studies: 10 on the citrus fruit sector and the cruise industry in Egypt, Lebanon, Malta, Spain and Turkey, and another 10 in various sectors in one single region of Spain, Catalonia. Outlining the variety of results from PPD processes on sector-specific development and competitiveness both regionally for the Mediterranean and within a single regional jurisdiction, the report provides a set of design and implementation guidelines and advocates a new approach: Local Sector-Specific PPDs (LSPPDs).


Making the Most of Public-Private Dialogue: An Advocacy Approach (pdf, 333kb)

Kim Eric Bettcher, Center for International Private Enterprise REFORM Toolkit, May 2011

This toolkit aids business leaders who seek to improve their participation in dialogue for better policy results. The toolkit explains the role of advocacy strategy in dialogue, the principles of high-quality dialogue, the elements of effective communication, and steps to prepare for dialogue.
Effective State-Business Relationships

Sen K., Te Velve W. (2010): series of studies on Effective State-Business Relationships, Overseas Development Institute, U.K.

This collection of essays by internationally distinguished scholars discusses the nature of state-business relations (SBRs) and the links between SBRs and economic performance. The briefings in this publication all bring out that the nature of state-business relations is a crucial factor behind efficient skills development, capital formation and ultimately higher productivity and incomes. But there is considerable debate about how the effects work, whether current state-business relations are conducive to or hamper economic performance, and about how the nature of state-business relations conditions the conduct of more active policies encouraging economic growth. Relationships between states and business are usefully understood as giving rise to and reflecting both economic and political institutions. This manifests itself in both formal and informal institutional arrangements between the private sector (e.g. business associations, including organized farmer groups) and the public sector (e.g. different ministries or departments of state, politicians and bureaucrats).
Clusters for Competitiveness, A Practical Guide & Policy Implications for Developing Cluster Initiatives

World Bank Group (2009). Clusters for competitiveness, A Practical Guide & Policy Implications for Developing Cluster Initiatives

This toolkit offers a rationale and a practical approach for using cluster analysis to enhance competitiveness in developing countries. While this document is not meant to be exhaustive, it presents a sound conceptual framework, outlines key instruments that can be used to initiate a cluster-based analyses and dialogues, and offers case studies on good practices and lessons learnt. It does not entail a definitive set of instruments; instead, it intends to contribute to ongoing discussions regarding the use of cluster analysis to promote competitiveness. It draws upon a host of analytical and operational documentation available on industrial clusters from around the world. This toolkit should be relevant to a broad audience working on the export competitiveness of developing countries: policy makers, business associations and leaders, and international development agencies.


Public-private alliances for long-term national development strategies (pdf, 371kb)

Robert Devlin and Graciela Moguillansky, CEPAl Review 97, April 2009

This paper analyses the ways public-private alliances operate in a number of countries in and outside Latin America, and with what impact on industrial and economic transormation. An extended version of the paper can also be found in a book by the same authors: "Breeding Latin American Tigers - Operational Principles for Rehabilitating Industrial Policies" (pdf, 2994kb), a copublication of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ELCAC) and the World Bank, 2011. Cases used as reference include Finland, Ireland, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Spain, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Luxembourg, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Czech Republic and Malaysia.


Review of World Bank Group Support to PPDs - April 2009 (pdf, 1790kb)

PPD Global Review Presentation (ppt, 1207kb)

Independent evaluation commissioned by IFC and the World Bank. Consultant: Malcolm Toland; April 2009

This study aims to measure the results and effectiveness of the 2009 stock of country-level Public Private Dialogue (PPD) Forums sponsored by the World Bank Group (WBG) which focus on private sector development and financial sector policy issues. The assessment looks at the different implementation modes used and their associated risks, the degree of coordination with other WBG and development partner activities in the same country, and the level of global and regional support and guidance provided to these initiatives.


Stakeholder Engagement - A Good Practice Handbook for Companies Doing Business in Emerging Markets

Stakeholder Engagement - A Good Practice Handbook for Companies Doing Business in Emerging Markets (2007). International Finance Corporation, The World Bank Group.

This handbook endeavors to provide a comprehensive overview of good practice in stakeholder engagement, with a dedicated focus on stakeholder groups that are "external" to the core operation of the business, such as affected communities, local government authorities, non-governmental and other civil society organizations, local institutions and other interested or affected parties. The handbook is divided into two parts: Part One contains they key concepts and principles of stakeholder engagement, the practices that are known to work, and the tools to support the delivery of effective stakeholder engagement. Part Two shows how these principles, practices and tools fit with the different phases of the project cycle, from initial concept, through construction and operations, to divestment and/or decommissioning.


Le Dialogue Public-Privé dans les Pays en Développement: Opportunités, Risques & Préalables (pdf, 959 kb)

Public Private Dialogues in Developing Countries: Opportunities and Risks (pdf, 1698 kb)

Nicolas Pinaud, OECD Development Centre, 2007

Based on an investigation into the conditions of public-private dialogue in sub-Saharan Africa, this paper aims to pinpoint institutional prerequisites - effectiveness of the bureaucracy, organization and maturity of the local private sector, political environment - for productive dialogue.

Presentation (ppt, 123kb) by Nicolas Pinaud to the Paris PPD workshop, February 2006.




Fostering Trade Through Public Private Dialogue (pdf, 232kb)

UNCTAD, WTO, June. 2007

The International Trade Centre (ITC),the joint technical cooperation agency of the United Nations (through UNCTAD) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), in collaboration with the Trade Law Centre for South Africa (TRALAC) organized a ?Regional Experts Meeting? for South African Development Community (SADC)2 on 11-12 June 2007 at Stellenbosch, South Afrfica focusing on the business implications of negotiations on Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union and issues relating to regional integration. The main finding of the meeting is that fostering communications between business and government leads to devising negotiating positions in line with national needs and is inclusive of the real and concrete economic and commercial interests of the countries concerned.


The European Security Research and Innovation Forum (ESRIF) - Public-Private Dialogue in Security Research

Europa, Gateway to the European Union, Sept. 2007

Public-private dialogue in the field of security research is important to increase the security of infrastructures and utilities, fight organised crime and terrorism, help restore security in a crisis, analyse political, social and human issues related to security research and improve surveillance and border control. The European Security Research and Innovation Forum (ESRIF), is a forum for the development of a Public-Private Dialogue in the area of EU security research and innovation.


Policy Reform Lessons Learned: A review of economic growth related policy reform activities in developing countries (pdf, 502kb)

USAID, 2007

Intended as a practical guide for development professionals with operational responsibilities for policy reform, this report casts a light on the importance of policy dialogue and open communication in managing the policy process.


Reforming the Business Enabling Environment: Mechanisms and Processes for Private-Public Sector Dialogue (pdf, 415kb)

Bannock Consulting Ltd, for DFID, Feb 2006

DFID Policy Division’s Investment, Competition and Enabling Environment (ICEE) team commissioned Bannock Consulting Ltd to examine how public-private sector dialogue (PPD) can support investment climate improvement. The consultants focused on DFID’s and the European Union’s field experiences with PPD processes and mechanisms in their private sector development programmes. The paper looks at dialogues spanning many continents, political and social systems, ranging from highly formal and structured to informal and ad hoc. It identifies success factors and lessons learned, and includes a helpful list of dos and don’ts for donors.

Presentation (ppt, 481kb) by Richard Waddington of Bannock Consulting Ltd to the Paris PPD workshop, February 2006.


How to Promote Public-Private Dialogue for Business Enabling Environment Reform (pdf, 130kb)

A brief "how to" note extracting the practical lessons emerging from the larger Bannock Consulting review of DFID's PPD experience.


FULL REPORT - PPD Impact Assessment - Vietnam Cambodia Laos
(pdf, 3061kb)

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - PPD Impact Assessment - Vietnam Cambodia Laos (pdf, 241kb)

Independent evaluation commissioned by IFC and AUSAID. Lead Consultants: HR Inc, Cambodia; Field Support: MCG Management Consulting, Vietnam; Task Management and Supervision: Lili Sisombat, IFC MPDF/PEP China; Benjamin Herzberg, IFC SME Department, Geeta Batra, IFC M&E Unit; April 2007

An independent evaluation was commissioned by IFC and AUSAID to assess the impact of the Cambodia's Government-Private Sector Forum m (G-PSF), of the Vietnam Business Forum (VBF) and of the Lao Business For um (LBF). The evaluation shows that significant reforms on trade facilitation, contract enforcement, regulatory transparency, access to land, tourism and tax can be largely attributed to the Business Forums. The evaluation also reveals that private sector savings from reforms processed through PPD in the Mekong Area amount $ 309.2 Million over the past five years.


Presidential Investors? Advisory Councils in AFRICA- Impact Assessment Study (pdf, 578kb)

Independent evaluation commissioned by the World Bank. Consultant: Natwar Gotecha; May 2005

The objective of this study is to evaluate and report on the impact of the work of the three pilot Presidential Investors? Advisory Councils in Ghana, Senegal and Tanzania, and the initial outcomes of the two new councils in Mali and Uganda. The study was conducted by a consultant through field interviews with council stakeholders. It assesses the council experiences to date, identifies lessons learned, relates them to other public-private mechanisms, and provides guidance on the future of the councils.


Competitiveness Partnerships: Building and Maintaining Public-Private Dialogue to Improve the Investment Climate (pdf, 1095kb)

Benjamin Herzberg & Andrew Wright; The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper Series, no. 3683., 2004

A resource drawn from the review of 40 countries’ experiences. The paper is designed to be used as a resource by donors, governments, or businesspeople who are interested in establishing, maintaining, or improving a competitiveness partnership in their country or region. It distills some ideas and techniques from best practice, offering a selection of valuable insights into how practitioners can avoid common pitfalls. The paper has three parts. Part One outlines what competitiveness partnerships can achieve. Part Two presents issues to consider when designing such partnerships, and Part Three identifies challenges that are frequently faced and strategies that have been used to overcome them.

Competitiveness Partnerships: Implementing business enabling environment programs through public-private dialogue (pdf, 195kb) is a shorter paper which summarises the findings of the Policy Research Working Paper.

Presentation (ppt, 4.88mb) by Benjamin Herzberg to the Paris PPD workshop, February 2006.

Checklist for practitioners (pdf, 32kb)

Extracted from the World Bank Working Paper on Competitiveness Partnerships (available in full here), this concise four-page checklist allows stakeholders to quickly assess various aspects of a dialogue mechanism and identify potential problem areas.


Consultation with stakeholders in the shaping of national and regional policies affecting small business (pdf, 767kb)

European Commission Enterprise and Industry Directorate General, Oct 2005

A valuable report on how policy makers in European countries consult with small businesses. It finds that since small enterprises constitute approximately 99% of businesses in all European economies, it is essential that the policy makers carefully listen to their opinions, involve them in the decision making process at an early stage and take their specific situation and their interests into account when developing new legislation and policies. Along with providing several interesting case studies, the report includes twelve recommendations addressed to national and regional governments on how to establish a more efficient dialogue with stakeholders and improve the consultation procedures. Annexes and consultation reports can be acessed here.


Institutions and State-Business Relations (pdf, 114kb)

Dirk Willem te Wilde, IPPG Programme Office, University of Manchester, Nov 2006

This paper aims at measuring the key factors based on theory and practice assiocated with effective SBRs for 20 sub-Saharan African countries over the period 1970-2005.The 20 SSA countries were scored over time on the basis of these factors and a composite SBR time series was calculated for each country.The findings are that first, higher scores are associated with faster growth ; secondly, the new measures correlate well with other governance indicators; and thirdly, they correlate with more operational investment climate data, such as fewer procedures when trading goods and services.


Public-private partnership as a tool to consolidate social dialogue at the local level (pdf, 320kb)

Carlien van Empel, International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization in Turin, May 2005

This thematic brief discusses the potential of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) for the enhancement of Social Dialogue at the local level.
Monitoring and evaluation of multi-stakeholder co-operation and partnerships in local economic development (pdf, 414kb)

Frans van Gerwen (Msc.), MDF Training & Consultancy, The Netherlands, and Lazar Nedanoski, MCIC, Macedonia, Oct 2005

Monitoring and evaluation poses particular challenges in PPD - not least because of the inherent tension between setting targets in advance and encouraging ownership of the process by stakeholders. These resources lay out some of the latest thinking on the subject. A valuable resource which looks at participatory and process-oriented approaches for monitoring and evaluation in public-private partnerships. It reviews lessons learned and looks at a case study from Macedonia. This is a draft paper prepared for the international conference on "reforming the business environment", held in Cairo in November/December 2005. Also available: a pdf of the presentation to the conference.


Social Marketing Applied to Economic Reforms (pdf, 1.2mb)

Alan R Andreasen and Benjamin Herzberg, July 2005

Social marketing uses the tools of commercial marketing to seek behaviour change. Awareness of the ideas and terminology can be a useful addition to the toolkit of PPD practitioners. This article discusses the principles of social marketing with reference to the efforts of the Bulldozer Initiative in Bosnia to change attitudes among entrepreneurs, legislators and the general public.


Building the Capacity of BMOs: Guiding Principles for Project Managers (pdf, 1.8mb)

Alejandro Alvarez de la Campa et al., Aug 2005

Business membership organizations (BMOs) can be a platform for promoting a better investment climate in developing countries - but they often need assistance to fulfil their role as private sector representatives effectively.

This World Bank publication analyses the problems typically faced by BMOs and gives guiding principles on how to design, implement and evaluate a project aimed at building their capacity to become a strong and reputable representative of the private sector.

Short introduction (pdf, 69kb) to the above report, prepared for Paris PPD workshop by Andrei Mikhnev, Senior Private Sector Development Specialist, World Bank/IFC Small and Medium Enterprise Department.

Strengthening Business Membership Organisations, presentation (ppt, 600kb) by Andrei Mikhnev



Promoting Competitiveness In Practice: An Assessment of Cluster-Based Approaches (pdf, 955kb)

Mitchell Group, for USAID, Nov 2003

Looks at public-private dialogue from the angle of working with industry clusters rather than investment climate reforms which affect a country?s whole economy. Looks in depth at USAID experiences in Mexico and Mongolia and also draws on other country experiences to distil lessons for promoting competitiveness through clusters.


Survey of Good Practice in Public-Private Sector Dialogue
(pdf, 145kb)

UNCTAD, 2001

A helpful distillation of some best practice in public-private dialogue drawn from experiences in several countries, with emphasis on SME promotion in the developing world. Especially valuable on identifying the conditions and culture which are conducive to dialogue and on discussing the role of private sector representative organizations.


Participation Revisited: A Managerial Perspective (pdf, 238kb)

Benjamin Crosby, USAID, Apr 2000

A philosophical and practical overview of the value and limitations of participation in formulating public policy. Discusses the costs and benefits of efforts to increase participation, identifies circumstances which are most propitious, and assesses some practical problems of expanding participation and strategies to deal with them.

 

   
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